TENSES

Tense refers to the form of the verb in a sentence to indicate the connection
to time of the action or state being described by the verb.
To get the proper tense,the form of the verb is modified to indicate two aspects:

1. The timeframe in which the action or state is.

2. The status of the action or the state within that timeframe.

(1) Ramesh goes to school.
(2) Naresh is going to school.
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The first sentence indicates that Ramesh goes to school – a general fact,while the second
sentence indicates that Naresh is going to school at the present moment.

The change in the form of the verb in reference to the timeframe of the action or status
being described is known as tense.
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There are 3 major timeframes according to which the verbs are modified.

1. The present- the current time
PRESENT TENSE
2. The past – time that has already been crossed
PAST TENSE
3. The future – time yet to come
FUTURE TENSE
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POSITION OR STATES

1. Indefinite : The indefinite form is used to describe a general fact or a habit.
2. Continuous : The continuous form specifies that the action being described is under
progress not yet competed.
3. Perfect: This is the form that indicates that within the specified timeframe the action
being described has been completed.
4. Perfect continuous : The perfect form is used to describe events that have been
occuring on a regular/repeated basis for a some time.
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PRESENT TENSE – the current time.
1. Simple present tense : In simple present, the action is simply mentioned and there
is nothing being said it’s completeness.

e.g I eat an apple.
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Present Indefinite Rules
Subject+V1+s/es+Object
We use the present rule, when an action is happening right now,or when it happens
regularly.

Singular : 1st first 2nd per 3rd person
I you He/she/it/Name

Plural : We You They

I,You,We, They-used”verb 1st form” for positive sentences and donot + 1st form for
negative sentences.

He,She,it,name – We mainly used ‘s/es’ form for positive sentences and does not+
first form for negatives sentences.

For a few verbs,the third person singular ends with-es instead of -s, whose root form ends
in O,ch,th,ss,gh,or z.

For neagtive simple present – do/does + not.

2. Present Continuous Tense : In present Continuous,the action is on going/still going on
and hence continuous.
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e.g I am eating an apple.
Rules :-

Positive : Subject + is/am/are +V1+ing+Object
Negative : Subject + is/am/are/+not+verb1+ing +object.

Interrogative :

Is/Am/Are + Subject +V1+ing +Object

3. Present Perfect Tense : In Present Perfect Tense,the action is complete, or has
ended and hence termed perfect.

e.g I have eaten an apple.
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Rules :

Positive :
Subject+Has/Have+V3+Object

Negative :
Subject + Has/Have+not+V3+Object

Interrogative
Has/Have+Subject+V3+Object.

4.Present Perfect Continuous Tense : In Present Perfect tense,the action has
been taking place for some time and is still on-going

e.g I have been eating an apple since morning

Rules :-

Positive :
Subject+Has/Have+Been+V1+ing+Object+For/Since+Time +Remaining.

For => Uncertain
Since => Certain Time

Negative :
Subject + Has/Have+Not+Been+V1+ing+Object+For/Since+Time+Remaning

Interrogative :
Has/Have+Subject+Been+V1+ing+Object+For/Since+Time+Remaning

PAST TENSE
Simple Past Tense : In Simple past, the action is simply mentioned and undertand
to have taken place in the past.

e.g I ate an apple

Rules :-

Positive : Subject + V2 + Object

Negative : Subject Did not + V2 +Object

Interrogative :
Did+Subject+V1+Object

2. Past Continuous :

In Past Continuous, the action was on going till a certain time in the past.

e.g I was eating an apple.

Rules :-

Positive :- Subject + Was/Were+V1+ing+Object
Negative : Subject + Was/Were +not+V1+ing+Object

Interrogative :
Was/Were + Subject +V1+ing+Object

3. Past Perfect Tense :

Past Perfect is used to express somthing that happenedn before another action in the
the past
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e.g I had eaten an apple

Rules :

Positive : subject + Had + V3 + Object
Negative : Subject + Had + not +V3+Object

Interrogative :
Had+Subject+V3+Object

4. Past Perfect Continuous :

past perfect continuous is used to express something started in the past and
continued untill another time in the past

e.g I had been eating an apple since morning.

Rules :

Positive :
Subject+Had+not+been+V1+ing+Object+For/Since+Time+Remaining.

Negative :
Subject+Had+Not+Been+V1+ing+Object+For/since+Time+Remaining

Interrogative :
Had + Subject+ Been+V1+ing +Object+For/Since+Time+Remaining
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FUTURE TENSES :
1. Simple Future : Simple Future is used when we plan or make a decision to do something
Nothing is said about the time in the future.

e.g I will eat an apple.
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Rules :

Positive :
Subject + Will/Shall+V1+Object

Negative :
Subject+will/shall+not+V1+Oject

Interrogative :

Will/Shall + Subject + V1 + Object

2. Future Continuous :
The future continuous tense is used to express action at a particular moment
in the future. However, the action will not finished at the moment.

e.g I will eating at 9 am.

Rules :

Positive:
Subject+Will/Shall+Be+V1+ing+Object

Negative :
Subject+Will/Shall+not+Be+V1+ing+Object

Interrogative :
Will/Shall+Subject+Be+V1+ing+Object.

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